- Plural of macrophage
Macrophages (Greek: "big eaters", from makros "large" + phagein "eat") (mø) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. Monocytes and macrophages are phagocytes, acting in both non-specific defense (or innate immunity) as well as specific defense (or cell-mediated immunity) of vertebrate animals. Their role is to phagocytose (engulf and then digest) cellular debris and pathogens either as stationary or mobile cells, and to stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond to the pathogen.
Life cycleWhen a monocyte enters damaged tissue through the endothelium of a blood vessel (a process known as the leukocyte adhesion cascade), it undergoes a series of changes to become a macrophage. Monocytes are attracted to a damaged site by chemical substances through chemotaxis, triggered by a range of stimuli including damaged cells, pathogens, histamine released by mast cells and basophils, and cytokines released by macrophages already at the site. At some sites such as the testis, macrophages have been shown to populate the organ through proliferation.
Unlike short-lived neutrophils, the life span of a macrophage ranges from months to years.
PhagocytosisOne important role of the macrophage is the removal of necrotic debris and dust in the lungs. Removing dead cell material is important in chronic inflammation as the early stages of inflammation are dominated by neutrophil granulocytes, which are ingested by macrophages if they come of age (see CD-31 for a description of this process.)
The removal of dust and necrotic tissue is to a greater extent handled by fixed macrophages, which will stay at strategic locations such as the lungs, liver, neural tissue, bone, spleen and connective tissue, ingesting foreign materials such as dust and pathogens, calling upon wandering macrophages if needed.
When a macrophage ingests a pathogen, the pathogen becomes trapped in a food vacuole, which then fuses with a lysosome. Within the lysosome, enzymes and toxic peroxides digest the invader. However, some bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have become resistant to these methods of digestion. Macrophages can digest more than 100 bacteria before they finally die due to their own digestive compounds.
Role in specific immunityMacrophages are versatile cells that play many roles. As scavengers, they rid the body of worn-out cells and other debris. They are foremost among the cells that "present" antigen; a crucial role in initiating an immune response. As secretory cells, monocytes and macrophages are vital to the regulation of immune responses and the development of inflammation; they churn out an amazing array of powerful chemical substances (monokines) including enzymes, complement proteins, and regulatory factors such as interleukin-1. At the same time, they carry receptors for lymphokines that allow them to be "activated" into single-minded pursuit of microbes and tumour cells.
After digesting a pathogen, a macrophage will present the antigen (a molecule, most often a protein found on the surface of the pathogen, used by the immune system for identification) of the pathogen to a corresponding helper T cell. The presentation is done by integrating it into the cell membrane and displaying it attached to a MHC class II molecule, indicating to other white blood cells that the macrophage is not a pathogen, despite having antigens on its surface.
Eventually the antigen presentation results in the production of antibodies that attach to the antigens of pathogens, making them easier for macrophages to adhere to with their cell membrane and phagocytose. In some cases, pathogens are very resistant to adhesion by the macrophages. Coating an antigen with antibodies could be compared to coating something with Velcro to make it stick to fuzzy surfaces.
The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 (type 1 helper T cells) to proliferate (mainly due to IL-12 secretion from the macrophage). When a B-cell in the lymph node recognizes the same unprocessed surface antigen on the bacterium with its surface bound antibody, the antigen is endocytosed and processed. The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. TH1 receptor that has proliferated recognizes the antigen-MHCII complex (with co-stimulatory factors- CD40 and CD40L) and causes the B-cell to produce antibodies that help opsonisation of the antigen so that the bacteria can be better cleared by phagocytes.
Macrophages provide yet another line of defense against tumor cells and body cells infected with fungus or parasites. Once a T cell has recognized its particular antigen on the surface of an aberrant cell, the T cell becomes an activated effector cell, releasing chemical mediators known as lymphokines that stimulate macrophages into a more aggressive form. These activated or angry macrophages, can then engulf and digest affected cells much more readily. The angry macrophage does not generate a response specific for an antigen, but attacks the cells present in the local area in which it was activated.
- Tingible body macrophages are found in the germinal centers of lymph nodes.
- Dendritic cells (including Langerhans cells).
- A lipid-laden macrophage is called a foam cell.
- A Multinucleated giant cells is a type of a macrophage seen in certain types of inflammatory diseases such as Mycoplasmal infections.
macrophages in Arabic: بلعميات
macrophages in Catalan: Macròfag
macrophages in Czech: Makrofág
macrophages in German: Makrophage
macrophages in Spanish: Macrófago
macrophages in Basque: Makrofago
macrophages in Persian: درشتخوار
macrophages in French: Macrophage
macrophages in Indonesian: Makrofag
macrophages in Italian: Macrofago
macrophages in Hebrew: מקרופאג'
macrophages in Lithuanian: Makrofagas
macrophages in Dutch: Macrofaag
macrophages in Japanese: マクロファージ
macrophages in Polish: Makrofag
macrophages in Portuguese: Macrófago
macrophages in Russian: Макрофаги
macrophages in Slovak: Makrofág
macrophages in Serbian: Макрофаг
macrophages in Finnish: Makrofagi
macrophages in Swedish: Makrofag
macrophages in Vietnamese: Đại thực bào
macrophages in Turkish: Makrofaj
macrophages in Ukrainian: Макрофаги
macrophages in Chinese: 巨噬细胞